Краткая история савиров //Вестник Томского государственного университета. № 383. 2014: 119-125.

В многочисленных трудах имеются попутные оговорки относительно истории савиров, однако они посвящены соседним племенам – гуннам, хазарам, болгарам и т.д. В статье предпринята попытка проследить краткую историю савиров. Работа опирается на классические письменные источники I тысячелетия н.э.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SAVIRS

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SAVIRS 

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In the numerous works there are different notes concerning the Savirs. However, in general, the works are about their neighboring peoples, namely the Huns, the Khazars, the Byzantines, etc. The present article contains the first attempt of a consistent review of a brief chronology of the history of the Savirs. The work is based on the classical written sources of the first millennium A.D. and the present fundamental works. In the middle of the second century the Σαύαροιwere mentioned by Ptolemy in the Caucasus lower than the Aorses and Pagyrites. In the early period of the history of the Caucasus the ancestors of the Chuvashes were often confused with other tribesmen,

primarily with the Huns. Since the fifth century it became more clear, when the Savirs being among the active participants of the Perso-Byzantine wars were involved in the interaction with the Persians, Eastern Romans, Ugric tribes, Avars, Armenians, Alans and the Lazs. Stephanus of Byzantium wrote in the fifth century about sapirs/savirs that inhabited the Akampis (Chorokh) River between Colchis and Persia. "From this region the Huns, like a fruitful root of bravest races, sprouted into two hordes of people. Some of these are called the Altziagiri, others – the Sabiri; and they have different dwelling places", Jordanes wrote about the core tribes of the Hunn confederation. In fact, the number of Huns among their army was not so big. There were, overwhelmingly, their allies and subjugated tribes. After the death of Attila in 453 and the following division of the Hun union into the independent tribes, the Savir confederation dominated in the Caucasus. The Onogur state disintegrated and then was replaced by the new military-political formation headed by the Savirs. It also included the remains of the Huns and the Bulgars. In 463 the Savirs attacked the Saragurs, the Urogs and the Onogurs. Such an activity of the Savirs was affected by the Avar invasion. As for the Avars, they were under the pressure of the tribes living in the coastal region. The Saragurs, in their turn, invaded the lands of the Acatzirs. In the second half of the fifth century the Savirs occupied the Kuma River region extending along the Caspian Sea. As we can see, the ethnonym emerged in Byzantine sources after Attila's death. Attila, as is well known, became the sole leader of the Hun union after he had forcibly eliminated his brother Vlida/Bleda in 445. Later Attila consolidated many tribes and did usurp the power. Before Attila's death only separate battle episodes in which the Savirs showed their courage had been mentioned. In other cases, they acted as an integral part of Attila's army and were called 'Huns' or, at best, 'Hun-Savirs' or 'Huns, called Savirs'. After that, the article presents the sequential chronology of the historical events related to the history of the Savirs. Since the coming of Arabs to the Caucasus they were called Sabirs, and since the early 10th century in the Volga on they were known as Suwars.